Yoshimitsu in Tekken Tag Tournament 2
|Also Known as||Space Ninja |
Mechanized Space Ninja (TK3)
The Inheritor of the Demon Sword (SFxTK)
|Fighting Style||Advanced Manji Ninjutsu  |
|Nationality||(Originally Japanese)  |
|Height||178cm (5′ 10″)  |
|Weight||63kg (139 lbs)  |
|Likes||Video Game Arcades (Especially those in Shinjuku, Japan)  |
Helping the Innocent
TV Games 
|Dislikes||Villains and Poor Losers (Videogames)  |
People who harm the innocent
|Age||Unknown  |
|Blood Type||O  |
|Occupation||Leader of the Manji Clan  |
|Hobby||Watching Sumo Wrestling and Net Surfing |
Tekken 5: Dark Resurrection
Tekken 6: Bloodline Rebellion
Tekken Tag Tournament
Tekken 3D: Prime Edition
Tekken Tag Tournament 2
Soul Calibur II
Soul Calibur III
Soul Calibur IV
Soul Calibur: Broken Destiny
Soul Calibur V
Street Fighter X Tekken
|Voice Actors||Katsuhiro Harada (TK1-TTT)|
Tomokazu Seki (TK4-onwards)
Yoshimitsu (吉光) is a fictional character who was first introduced in the original Tekken game and has returned for all subsequent sequels in the Tekken series, except Tekken Revolution. Additionally, an analogous character bearing the same name, weapon, clan, and basic information, was later carried over into Namco’s Soul series of fighting games as a major character, making his debut in Soul Calibur and returned for all of the series main installments.
As head of the Manji party, Yoshimitsu entered the King of Iron Fist Tournament as a distraction, to allow the Manji to steal the tournament's funds unobserved. Whilst participating, Yoshimitsu encountered Ganryu, a corrupt sumo wrestler. Contemptuous of Ganryu's disrespect for the sumo code, Yoshimitsu stole Ganryu's ill gotten gains and gave it to the poor.
Ending Description, "Money Money": Yoshimitsu and some other Manji clan members ride through what appears to be an alley of a village. They are on horses. Some people are in this alley. Yoshimitsu opens a box, and a lot of Ganryu's ill gotten gains come out of it. Marshall Law opens his mouth wide, while Marshall's wife and a young Forest Law looks at the falling money happily. Yoshimitsu looks back at the people as him and his Manji Clan members are shown riding away. The three of them wave goodbye. Yoshimitsu and his Manji clan members are shown riding away again. The phrase "The End" is then shown in white letters on a black screen.
Yoshimitsu learned that the scientist named Bosсonovitch, who once saved his life, had been abducted by Kazuya Mishima. To rescue Bosсonovitch, he entered the King of Iron Fist Tournament 2, and was able to save his friend.
Ending Description, "The Rescue": A white helicopter is shown flying away. Yoshimitsu looks up at it. Then, he jumps onto the helicopter and breaks the windshield into the cockpit. Yoshimitsu grabs Doctor Bosсonovitch and jumps out of the helicopter. Yoshimitsu uses his prosthetic arm and his sword to hover as the helicopter explodes in the background, gliding them both to safety. Then, the camera focuses on Yoshimitsu.
Yoshimitsu is the leader of the Manji Clan, a notorious gang of Robin Hood-like thieves. He entered the Tournament upon learning that his friend, Dr. Bosconovitch, needs Ogre's blood to live. Yoshimitsu now fights to save the life of the man who once saved him.
Lending a helping hand... Bosconovitch created the Cold Sleep machine during his experiments in his search for eternal life. The technology, still unproven, was used to preserve his young daughter, who suddenly passed away. Yoshimitsu raised research funds, and as the leader of the Manji party, he helped the poor and disadvantaged.
Yoshimitsu visited Bosconovitch when he learned of the many martial artist disappearances. Yoshimitsu was surprised to find Bosconovitch suffering from a mysterious pathological organism. It's believed to have been contracted during lab experiments while making the Cold Sleep machine.
Bosconovitch claims he needs blood from Ogre to live. Indebted to Bosconovitch for saving his life, Yoshimitsu enters the tournament to help an old friend.
Ending Description, "Ogre's Blood": A bubbling green substance is shown in a jar labeled "Ogre's Blood". Yoshimitsu is shown looking at a rat in a cage. Next, it is revealed that Doctor Bosсonovitch is beside him. They are apparently testing Ogre's blood on the rat. The rat starts to drink it. Yoshimitsu and Doctor Bosсonovitch turn their heads and look at each other. After a few seconds, they go back to watching the rat drink Ogre's blood. The rat turns its face so that it is facing the screen. Dramatic music starts playing. Yoshimitsu is shown running out of the building while holding Doctor Bosсonovitch under one of his arms. The rat, now gigantic, bursts through the building.
As the leader of the Manji Party, Yoshimitsu dedicated himself to providing food, medical assistance, and shelter to the ever-increasing number of political refugees around the world. Unfortunately, with a constant lack of necessary funding and manpower, Yoshimitsu was unsure about the future of his organization.
When Yoshimitsu heard about The King of Iron Fist Tournament 4, he envisioned a union between the Manji Party and the Mishima Zaibatsu. With this dream in mind, Yoshimitsu decides to enter the Tournament immediately. He must defeat Heihachi Mishima at any cost.
Ending Description: Yoshimitsu is shown walking up to Heihachi Mishima, who is surrounded by a bunch of men in suits, in the Mishima Manor. Heihachi refuses to hand over his company to the Manji, and prepares to have Yoshimitsu killed. Before he can, he is interrupted with the news that the Manji have airlifted the vault, Yoshimitsu having anticipated Heihachi's actions. Heihachi's men attack Yoshimitsu, but he escapes, flying through the roof.
Yoshimitsu. A ninja helping the poor. While breaking into the Mishima Zaibatsu's vault, he found an injured Bryan Fury and helped him escape. A month later when Yoshimitsu visits Dr. Bosсonovitch's lab, he finds his comrades dead. This was Bryan's thanks. "He shall pay for what he has done," says Yoshimitsu. Learning Bryan will fight in The King Of Iron Fist Tournament 5, Yoshimitsu sharpens his sword and enters the fray.
Ending Description: Bryan Fury is shown walking with a Gatling Gun, then halts, and starts to initiate its catastrophic power, onto a withered pillar. In the midst of confusion from his actions, Yoshimitsu is then visibly seen dashing, avoiding hits by the Gatling Gun. As the Gatling Gun's bullets come closer to Yoshimitsu, he then disappears. Bryan Fury is now verifying Yoshimitsu's location. Yoshimitsu is then visibly seen in the air, while doing an abundance of spins with his sword, Yoshimitsu stands towards Bryan Fury. While stunned, Yoshimitsu's attack is successful. Bryan then lets out one last angered cry, and is then turned into dismantled dust. Yoshimitsu then mentions the word "Retribution" (most likely pertaining to Bryan's betrayal due to him savagely murdering his Manji Clan members, as well as attacking Doctor Bosconovitch).
Trying to avenge his fallen Manji clan comrades, while going after Bryan Fury, Yoshimitsu realizes that his sword is weakening. His sword is a cursed blade. By killing evil doers and villains, the sword would retain its power. Otherwise, the cursed sword would make the user go insane. Yoshimitsu realizes that he can no longer use his old sword and decides to use another blade called Fumaken, that seals the properties of the cursed sword. He then decides to enter The King of Iron Fist Tournament 6.
Ending Description: After defeating Azazel, Yoshimitsu then walks toward him. The mystical orb (within Azazel's chest) is then held by Yoshimitsu, then levitates; then in an instant, is swirling around Yoshimitsu, then to his cursed sword. Yoshimitsu then struggles just to hold his (Yoshimitsu) sword, which has been consumed/strengthened by the orb in Azazel's chest, to become an even more formidable power. Yoshimitsu is then shown trying to recover from the sword's transformation (with an esoteric aura from Azazel's orb within his chest), then laughs hysterically. He then sends an immensely powerful slash that is then shown outside of Azazel's chamber, to have severed a part of the chamber. What happens next, is unknown.
Yoshimitsu appeared in the movie as a minor character. He was one of the people participating in the tournament.
Yoshimistu appeared as a playable character in Tekken Tag Tournament.
Yoshimitsu appeared in the 2010 live action Tekken movie. Yoshimitsu works under Kazuya's service and was ordered to kill Jin Kazama in the arena but he is defeated and almost killed. Yoshimitsu is portrayed by Gary Ray Stearns.
Yoshimitsu appeared in Street Fighter X Tekken as a playable character. His official tag partner is Raven. As the leader of the "Robin Hood" style ninja group known as the Manji Clan, Yoshimitsu hears a strange ringing sound throughout the night, as if it was calling for something. Yoshimitsu wonders if his demonic sword is resonating with the people now in the Antarctic who are in pursuit of Pandora. He sets out for the frozen continent in order to appease the appetite of his cursed sword.
Rival Battle: As Balrog and Vega are walking, Raven tells Yoshimitsu his plan; but before he can finish, Yoshimitsu attacks Balrog and Vega. Raven kicks him and shouts asking why he didn't follow the plan (to which Yoshimitsu jokingly states that he wants to be honorable).
Ending Description: When the two finally get the box, Yoshimitsu has now gone insane (as hinted as his eyes are now red). Yoshimitsu attacks Raven who teleports on top of the box, but failed to realize that it had opened. It then closes with Raven inside and Yoshimitsu is later seen carrying the box with Raven shouting to let him out.
Epilogue: It is revealed that Yoshimitsu went insane so that he could unleash all the demonic energy from his sword. With his sword now calm, he planned on using Pandora to help the Manji Clan but he goes off to look for it after the box suddenly disappears.
Yoshimitsu appears as a playable character in the sequel to Tekken Tag Tournament.
Yoshimitsu appears as a playable character in Tekken Card Tournament.
- Ganryu - He defeated and robbed Ganryu of his ill-gotten money in Tekken.
- Ling Xiaoyu - He saved her from Heihachi's evil plans in Tekken 4.
- Heihachi Mishima - He saved Xiaoyu from Heihachi's evil plans in Tekken 4.
- Kunimitsu - He expelled her from the Manji Clan after Kunimitsu was found to have been robbing the clan's funds.
- Doctor Bosconovitch - Yoshimitsu was saved by him when a raid of the Mishima Zaibatsu went horribly wrong and later saved him in return.
- Bryan Fury - Bryan chose Yoshimitsu as his primary target during Tekken 3, turning them into rivals. In Tekken 4, however, he saved Bryan, but later became enemies with him in Tekken 5 / Dark Resurrection.
- Marshall Law - Yoshimitsu gave the money he robbed from Ganryu to Marshall and his poor family in his Tekken ending.
- Raven - His rival in Tekken 5 and partner in Street Fighter X Tekken.
Wielding a sword, Yoshimitsu has many attacks that utilize it. He can perform slashes with it, use it to impale his opponent, and rotate it with his mechanical right hand in a windmill manner (he can also use this method to fly). Another use of his sword is in "Harakiri" moves, where he impales himself and/or his opponent with it, damaging them both.
He has many stances. One is "Meditation", where he turns his back to his opponent and heals himself (excluding Tekken 3 and Tekken Tag Tournament, whereas if the player left him in Meditation stance, he will lose his own health). "Indian Stance", where he heals himself while sitting Indian style. Another of his stances is "Manji Dragonfly", where he rotates his sword and his mechanical right hand to levitate in midair.
He also has a "Flea" stance, where he stands on his sword by placing the tip into the ground and wrapping his hands and feet around the hilt. Another is his Kincho stance, where he'll yell "Hissatsu" (meaning "Certain kill" in Japanese), and threaten to pull out his wakizashi. If a certain button is pressed, Yoshimitsu will take the wakizashi out of its case and inflict damage onto his opponent as he pulls it out.
From Tekken 6 onwards, Yoshimitsu can now sheathe his sword and fight without it, and he can also use his second sword in some of his attacks.
Fighting style Edit
Yoshimitsu's fighting style incorporates a blend of ninjutsu, samurai style sword attacks, and special stances.
In the original Tekken, Yoshimitsu's fighting style is very close to real ninjutsu, minus the sword attacks.
As of Tekken 6, Yoshimitsu's fighting style can be described as a blend of ninjutsu, kenjutsu, and battoujutsu.
Yoshimitsu's sword Edit
Yoshimitsu's sword is a special Japanese sword passed down through many generations in the Manji clan. Its nature is incredibly similar to the legend of the swords made by Muramasa, in which a sword forged by Muramasa cannot be sheathed until it has killed someone. His ancestors, who appear in the Soul Calibur series, are depicted using a simple katana with a purple hilt. Yoshimitsu in the Tekken series has only used a katana in the original Tekken. While his sword is always a Japanese sword and is the same sword passed down through many generations, it never keeps the same appearance and is usually depicted as a tachi, although modified in certain ways.
In Tekken 6, Yoshimitsu learns its cursed nature and enters the sixth King of Iron Fist Tournament to find a way to control it. In his Tekken 6 ending, after intaking Azazel's core, his new sword "Fumaken" reverts back to his original sword, and when he hits the ground with it, a large shockwave shoots from the blade, bisecting Azazel's temple. As of Tekken 6, Yoshimitsu's sword no longer glows because of the fact that it is losing power and is now corrupted. The corruption can be visibly seen in Tekken Tag Tournament 2.
- Like Heihachi Mishima, Nina Williams, Paul Phoenix and King, Yoshimitsu has appeared in all of the games in the Tekken series, excluding Tekken Revolution in which he currently isn't present.
- Yoshimitsu has never taken off his mask to reveal his true face (this is the same case with Soul Calibur's Yoshimitsu).
- In Tekken 4 only, Yoshimitsu can copy certain moves from other characters. This can be done by using Soul Stealer (Square + O). If his sword changes to a red color, do Soul Stealer again, and he will perform the copied move. Note that he can only copy certain moves and cannot copy his own, and to copy a move, the player will have to time it with the move that your opponent has performed. Practice mode is recommended to see which moves he does and doesn't copy.
- In Tekken 2 through Tekken Tag Tournament, Yoshimitsu has secret win poses. In Tekken 2, he only has one, but in Tekken 3 and Tekken Tag Tournament, he has two. The same exact inputs can be used in all three games.
- To view these win poses, the player can press and hold either O or X during the replay when they win while using Yoshimitsu. If the player hold down O, Yoshimitsu will perform a Japanese kabuki dance. If the player hold down X, he will somersault into the air, land, and do a pose similar to his (色即是空 Shiki Soku Ze kū) pose.
- It should be noted that X only works with Tekken 3 and Tekken Tag Tournament, O works with all three games.
- Yoshimitsu's appearance in Tekken is based on Taira No Kagekiyo, another one of Namco's characters who appears and is the main character in Genpei Tōmā Dēn and its sequel, which were games released only in Japan. It can also be noted that in Tekken 6, Yoshimitsu can be customized to resemble Taira No Kagekiyo. And in Tekken 4, Yoshimitsu's P2 costume looks almost exactly like Taira No Kagekiyo.
- Yoshimitsu's sword is strong enough to cut stone in half (as seen in Kunimitsu's Tekken 2 ending).
- Yoshimitsu was the first character in the Tekken series to actually speak. In one of his Tekken 3 victory poses, he is heard chanting a fragment of the Heart Sutra: (色即是空 Shiki soku ze kū).
- Yoshimitsu and Kunimitsu (along with Mokujin, Tetsujin, Combot, and Unknown when mimicking either of them) are the only playable characters who use a weapon.
- Yoshimitsu has been made into figures and models for every game in the series except for the very first Tekken game.
- Sodom, from the Final Fight and Street Fighter series, shares some similiarities with Yoshimitsu. Both wear samurai-inspired armor and masks, and both use two swords in combat (although Yoshimitsu hasn't always used two swords in combat). In addition to this, both have a serious and determined personality, but often leave a rather goofy and comical impression. One major key difference between the two is that Yoshimitsu is actually Japanese, while Sodom is not.
- Yoshimitsu is one of the few Tekken characters to have a website for fans of Yoshimitsu called Manjikai.
- Yoshimitsu was seen without a sword in Tekken: The Motion Picture.
- In the Tekken 6 art book, Namco answers the question about Yoshimitsu being a human in his 'history page'. "Fans often say he looks inhuman, but the character setting is that there actually is a human in the armor."
- In the manuals for Tekken and Tekken 2, Yoshimitsu is never referred to as a ninja, and the manual refers to his fighting style as "Manji style jujutsu".
- Excluding customization items, Yoshimitsu has the most different costumes of any Tekken character, gaining a completely new default costume for every game besides Tekken Tag Tournament and Street Fighter X Tekken (which both use his Tekken 3 default costume).
- In Yoshimitsu's bio in the game manual, he is referred to as a "Space Ninja". The reason for this is unknown, as Yoshimitsu looks nothing like an alien and a human neck can be seen in CG art of his Tekken 1 P1 costume. He also wears a Japanese Hannya mask, which is usually worn by performers of the Noh theaters and it was also worn by some ninjas.
- Yoshimitsu's sub-boss is Ganryu.
- Yoshimitsu's sub-boss is Kunimitsu.
- Yoshimitsu can now use his sword more than in the first game.
- In Yoshimitsu's ending for this game, there is a small continuity error, as Yoshimitsu is seen using his right hand for the helicopter hand when it is his left hand that is mechanized.
- More of Yoshimitsu's unarmored body can be seen in this game than in any other Tekken game.
- Yoshimitsu's sub-bosses in the Tekken Force side game are (in order of appearance) himself, Mokujin, Bryan Fury, and Heihachi Mishima.
- Yoshimitsu's Tekken 3 incarnation was also one of the bonus characters available to play as or against in Anna Kournikova's Smash Court Tennis, for the Playstation, alongside fellow Namco characters, including Richard Miller (from Time Crisis), Pac-Man, Reiko Nagase, and fellow Tekken characters Heihachi Mishima and Eddy Gordo. Also, Yoshimitsu's Tekken 3 "energy sword" is one of the secret tennis rackets unlocked during the game.
- Yoshimitsu was given new vocal sound bits in this game, alongside his old ones. These new voices, however, make him sound somewhat demonic. His appearance in this game is also noticeably more menacing, as well.
- Yoshimitsu's default Tekken 3 outfit is his most iconic outfit.
- This game also introduces his infamous Flea Stance, which lets him literally wrap his hands and feet around his sword without touching the ground with his own body, while perfectly balancing the sword's tip into the ground, and jumping onto his opponents.
- Yoshimitsu's sword also glows in this game. The reason for this is because he now wields a sword possessed of demonic power, explained in Tekken 6.
- Yoshimitsu has a special intro pose with Bryan Fury where Yoshimitsu is sitting on the ground and Bryan is talking to him. Another one is where Yoshimitsu will sit on the ground while Bryan does his normal win poses.
- He also has a special intro pose with Heihachi Mishima where they both sit indian style.
- Another special win pose is with Ling Xiaoyu where Yoshimitsu swings his sword in a circle formation while Xiaoyu waves her hand.
- Yoshimitsu's voice sounds even more distorted in this game, entirely doing away with his original sound bytes. He also speaks much more, like other characters in this game.
- His default costume resembles a beetle, and his wings come out and flap during certain moves.
- If the player perform his Indian Stance Levitation, pressing Square, Triangle, or both closes his wings (depending on which button/combination they press), Yoshimitsu can either be heard speaking or laughing when they move him after closing his wings.
- Yoshimitsu's sub-bosses are Raven and Bryan Fury.
- Yoshimitsu has a special move that only works when fighting Bryan Fury. The move is an imitation of Bryan Fury's Taunt, meaning that Yoshimitsu will lift his knee and wave his fist, but instead of laughing like Bryan, he spews noxious gas from his mouth (TK5:DR only).
- Yoshimitsu can be customized to resemble his Tekken 3 Player 1 incarnation (TK5:DR only).
- When successfully performing the kamikaze feint move, a distinct "oops" can be heard afterward (right, X+O, left).
- While playing Story Mode with Yoshimitsu, if the player loses against Raven, a comical scene where Yoshimitsu tries (and fails) to learn Raven's ninjitsu hand signs will play.
- Yoshimitsu has undergone the most drastic change regarding his fighting style, compared to the other characters. The canon explanation for this is that his sword's negative energy is accumulating, forcing him to wield an additional sword that counteracts his sword's negative effects, and donning a new fighting style. Kenjutsu, from the Manji clan, includes both dual sword fighting and pure fist fighting. His new sword is called Fumaken, which has the ability to control his old cursed blade "Yoshimitsu".
- Yoshimitsu's sword attacks used to be unblockable; however, in Tekken 6, some of them can actually be blocked.
- In the Scenario Campaign of Tekken 6, Yoshimitsu is a boss on Kigan Island.
- Yoshimitsu can be customized to resemble Raiden, the main protagonist from Metal Gear Solid 2.
- When Yoshimitsu talks it isn't subtitled, even if the subtitle setting is 'All'.
- Yoshimitsu has a special victory pose with Alisa Bosconovitch where Yoshimitsu prepares his sword and Alisa activates her chainsaws.
- In another special pose, he will flip over Alisa and begin flying with his sword and Alisa will fly up after him. Both victory poses can be seen here.
- In a special win pose with Doctor Bosconovitch, they both shake hands and nod as Yoshimitsu begins to fly upwards using his sword and takes Doctor B. with him.
- In an interaction, Yoshimitsu will hold his hand out towards Bryan. Bryan will tauntingly hold his hand out as well and attempt to counter it with a punch instead. Yoshimitsu, possibly knowing Bryan would react violently, makes himself vanish before Bryan even hits him. He then looks around in confusion wondering where he went.
- He has a special victory pose with Raven where they will both make ninja hand symbols simultaneously.
- He has a special victory pose with Kunimitsu, where he raises his sword and disappears as soon as she tries to slash him. She then aimlessly looks around for him.
- Yoshimitsu can be customized to resemble the original Soul Calibur's Yoshimitsu (except the Hannya mask cannot be equipped by Yoshimitsu, it can only be equipped by Kunimitsu).
- In the Tekken Forever comic, Yoshimitsu is friends with Lei Wulong and they fight Bryan Fury together.
- As stated above, Yoshimitsu, Eddy and Heihachi appeared in Anna Kournikova's Smash Court Tennis as playable characters.
- Yoshimitsu's rivals in Tekken Card Challenge are Paul Phoenix, Bryan Fury, and Heihachi Mishima.
- Yoshimitsu is portrayed as a true samurai warrior according to Kazuya in the 2010 live action Tekken film.
- Yoshimitsu's costume in the 2010 Tekken film is a redesign of his suit in Tekken 3.
- Yoshimitsu never talks in the Tekken: The Motion Picture or 2010 Tekken film.
- In both Tekken and the Soul series, Yoshimitsu borrows some of Heishiro Mitsurugi's moves as well as Mitsurugi borrowing one of Yoshimitsu's moves from Tekken. It can also be noted that although Yoshimitsu is supposedly a ninja, he portrays a military samurai, just like Mitsurugi portrays a Ronin samurai. On another note, in Tekken 2, Yoshimitsu's tachi closely resembles the one that Mitsurugi uses in Soul Edge/Soul Blade. Also, if Mitsurugi loses in Soul Edge, his losing animation is him sitting down Indian style and banging the hilt of his sword on his knee, Yoshimitsu does this same exact thing in Tekken 2 if he loses when time is up.
- Due to there being a second Yoshimitsu in SoulCalibur V, it's not known which of the two Yoshimitsu's he is related to. It could be both, neither one, or one of them since "Yoshimitsu" becomes a title passed onto successive leaders of the Manji Clan.
- Although Yoshimitsu is said to be a ninja numerous times, he has always appeared in a similar way to a samurai, and most of his customizations items are samurai armor, while he rarely ever has ninja items. He even uses a samurai sword, and starting with Tekken 6, he uses a wakizashi (the second and smaller sword on his left hip) making him even more like a samurai. But he is also more of a ninja in his fighting moves, while his sword moves are a certain type of samurai style. He even mixes up his ninjutsu with his samurai style (Ex: Indian Stance Storm).
- In Tekken: Blood Vengeance, Yoshimitsu's dossier is briefly seen when Anna Williams opens a file containing dossiers of various persons of interest.
- In Street Fighter X Tekken, Vega's Swap Costume is based on Yoshimitsu's appearance.
- Many fans claim that Yoshimitsu is a robot rather than a human due to his cyborg-like voice.
- ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.bandainamcogames.co.jp/cs/list/tekken2/frame.html
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j http://www.tekkenzaibatsu.com/tekken3/profile.php?id=yoshimitsu
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWT0mB6sXKQ
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZoTuRKlvS8
- ^ a b http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zir3rMg57r0
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqVEDWYCdOA